In real life, the primary purpose in raising flocks is to gain income.
Herding is an economic choice, a livelihood.
Any shepherd, ancient or modern, would be surprised if he were criticized for raising animals only for their fiber, milk, and meat.
Yet this is Ezekiel’s critique of the ‘shepherds of Israel’ in Ezekiel 34. The criticism only makes sense if the leaders of Israel are undershepherds. In that case they have no right to the products.
The parable goes right to the heart of the matter: the rulers behaved like owners rather than hired servants. --Timothy S Laniak